Fedoseeva Lyudmila Yur'evna, Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of history and social sciences, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), firstname.lastname@example.org
Gavrilova Tat'yana Viktorovna, Candidate of historical sciences, associate professor, sub-department of history and social sciences, Penza State University (40 Krasnaya street, Penza, Russia), email@example.com
Background. Since the 1990-ies the position of the intelligentsia in society has changed radically. From the «stratum» it turned into an active creative force, playing a significant role in the economy, politics, and culture. A special place in its ranks is occupied by the artistic intelligentsia, since it has unique means of influencing the masses, which neither the scientific nor the technical intelligentsia possesses – the power of the artistic image, the power of the word turned to the masses. This determines its role in modern society. In the first decades of Soviet power, the state particularly needed it as a conductor of a new ideology, and so it systematically formed an intelligentsia loyal to the regime. This article is aimed at studying the social, national, professional composition, the level of education of the artistic intelligentsia of the Penza region in the context of all-Russian trends.
Materials and methods. The implementation of research tasks was achieved through the use of documents kept in the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the State Archive of the Penza Region: the minutes of the Art Workers Union Management meetings, urban population censuses of 1923 and 1926, the Personnel Books of the Penza Art Workers Union Provincial Branch, questionnaires of the Penza Provincial Art Workers Union members and other documents. The methodology of the article is based on the principles of objectivity, historicism, and value approach that are traditional for historical research. Methods of comparison, analysis, generalization are used. The concept of social constructionism or the theory of constructing a new social reality, in which frameworks the artistic intelligentsia appears in the rank of an object and at the same time an instrument of state policy for the formation of a new cultural identity that guides the society towards the perception of the values of modernism, have a special importance for solving research problems. The theory of modernization presented in the historical and cultural focus that stands for the priority of spiritual processes have a high cognitive value for this study.
Results. Social, national, professional and party composition of the Penza artistic intelligentsia, the level of its education in the context of all-Russian trends have been studied.
Conclusions. The data obtained as a result of the research explains the state policy towards the artistic intelligentsia in the first decades of the Soviet power. It also allows to trace the causes and effects in the process of the creative intelligentsia formation and conditionality of the process by the economic condition and agrarian specificity of the Penza region in the period under review. The extreme narrowness of the social layer responsible for the reproduction of the ideological model that reconciles peasant civilization with the ideals of modern society, and the powerful influence of traditionalism moved the task of uniting the split society to a very remote perspective, that interrupted the success of industrialization.
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